Permits may be used to cross the border within the border area, are not stamped at the border crossing and must indicate the name and photo of the holder, as well as a clarified statement that the holder does not have the right to move outside the border area and that any abuse is punishable by criminal penalties. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, it has lost for the EU Member States the status of a treaty that could only be modified on its terms. Instead, changes are made in accordance with the EU`s legislative procedure under the EU Treaties.  Ratification by the former signatory states of the Convention is not necessary to amend or repeal part or all of the previous Schengen acquis.  Acts laying down the conditions for accession to the Schengen area are now adopted by majority decision in the EU`s legislative bodies. The new EU Member States do not sign the Schengen Agreement as such, but are required to implement the Schengen rules within the framework of existing EU legislation that any new entrant must accept. [Citation required] On 25 July 2011, during the final assessment of the measures taken by Italy and France, the European Commissioner for Home Affairs stated: „From a formal point of view, the measures taken by the Italian and French authorities are in line with EU law. I regret, however, that the spirit of the Schengen rules has not been fully respected.  Ms Malmström also called for a more coherent interpretation of the Schengen rules and a strengthening of the Schengen area evaluation and monitoring system.  Differences of opinion between Member States led to an impasse over the abolition of border controls within the Community, but in 1985, five of the ten Member States at the time – Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany – signed an agreement on the phasing out of common border controls. The agreement was signed on the princess marie-astrid boat on the Moselle, near the city of Schengen, Luxembourg, where the territories of France, Germany and Luxembourg meet.
Three of the signatories, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, had already abolished common border controls within the framework of the Benelux Economic Union. [Citation required] Ten local transportation agreements came into effect until June 2017 [Update]. From 2015[update], Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an association agreement with the EU. Andorra`s ambassador to Spain, Jaume Gaytán, said he hoped the agreement would contain provisions to make the Schengen agreement associate member states.  Of the 27 EU Member States, 22 participate in the Schengen area. Of the five EU Member States that are not part of the Schengen area, four – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – are legally obliged to join in the future, while the other – Ireland – maintains an opt-out. The four member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed agreements related to the Schengen Agreement. Three European micro-states that are not members of the European Union, but are enclaves or half-slaves within an EU member state – Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City – are de facto part of the Schengen area.